The employment of wives and mothers rose dramatically from 1960 to about 1990, and thereafter has leveled off. There was a small dip from 2000 to 2004, but employment rates had inched back to 2000 levels by 2006, the latest figures available. Contrary to recent press accounts, there has not been an “op-out” revolution. […]Topics of Expertise: Division of Labor in Families / Labor & Workforce / Work & Family
In 1960, only 40 percent of women aged 25-54 years old were in the labor force. By 2000, 70 percent of women that age were employed. For married women with children aged six through seventeen, employment rates grew from 40 percent in 1960 to a peak of almost 80 percent by the new millennium. Sixty percent of married women with children under school age now work for pay, compared to less than 20 percent in 1960. Mothers are still more likely than fathers to work part-time, but they are less likely to do so than they were in the past. Wives work for pay eighty percent of the hours their husbands work for pay, a huge increase since the 1960s.Topics of Expertise: Division of Labor in Families / Feminism & Families / Gender & Sexuality / Labor & Workforce / Work & Family
By Michael J. Rosenfeld Professor of Sociology Stanford University firstname.lastname@example.org, 415.205.1892 Prior to 1970, the overwhelming majority of all couples were same-race married couples. Couples who lived together outside of marriage, whether heterosexual or same-sex, were practically invisible. Inter-racial marriages were extremely rare. In fact, until 1967, many states in the US had laws against interracial […]Topics of Expertise: Biracial/ Multicultural Children and Interracial/ Multicultural Families / Gender & Sexuality / History & Trends on Gender, Marriage & Family Life / LGBTQ Partnering & Families / Marriage & Divorce / Race, Ethnicity & Culture / Singles & Dating
By Jody Heymann, Ph.D. Professor in the Faculties of Medicine and Arts McGill University Founder and Director of the Project on Global Working Families Alison Earle, Ph.D. Project Manager for the Work, Family and Democracy Initiative Harvard University Jeffrey Hayes, Ph.D. Institute for Health & Social Policy McGill University The Work, Family, and Equity […]Topics of Expertise: Work & Family
Many people believe that marriage is the fundamental building block of society, an institution that broadens social ties and ensures that individuals will not grow old in isolation. Perhaps that was true in the past, when marriage was a central unit of economic production and political organization. But today, despite the benefits that a good marriage delivers to the couple and their children, marriage actually tends to isolate partners from other people in ways that pose potential long-term problems both for the couple and for society as a whole.
In a research brief from the Council on Contemporary Families, University of Chicago’s Patrick Heuveline explains how divorce rates get calculated. If you ever report on divorce rates, this article will give you confidence in how you interpret them, and will show you the key questions to ask your sources when they are reporting on divorce statistics.Topics of Expertise: Couples Conflict, Separation & Divorce
By Heather Boushey, Ph.D. Senior Economist Center for American Progress Recent media reports claim that mothers are increasingly “opting out” of employment to stay home with their families. But according to a new study released by the Council on Contemporary Families and the Center for Economic and Policy Research, the 20-year trend has been […]Topics of Expertise: Division of Labor in Families / Labor & Workforce / Work & Family
By AnneMarie Murdock Research Intern Council on Contemporary Families Recent trends in U.S. sexual education and reproductive health policies threaten to jeopardize the significant progress made during the 1980s and 1990s in improving teen sexual health domestically and HIV/STD infection rates, unwanted pregnancies, and reproductive health care worldwide. The issue of sex education and […]Topics of Expertise: Fertility,Reproduction & Sexual Health / Gender & Sexuality / Health & Illness / Health Care / Reproductive Health / Singles & Dating
By M. V. Lee Badgett Professor of Economics University of Massachusetts, Amherst As a way to understand what might happen, some writers have looked to the experience of those Scandinavian countries that pioneered giving a marriage-like status to gay and lesbian couples. Denmark adopted such a law in 1989, Norway in 1993, Sweden in […]Topics of Expertise: Gender & Sexuality / LGBTQ Partnering & Families / Marriage & Divorce
Twentieth century social policy in industrial nations was originally formulated on the assumption that one particular family model was both the most prevalent and the most desirable. A family was supposed to consist of a married couple — one male breadwinner and one female homemaker — and their children, and the wages of a man were assumed to be enough to support a wife and children. Almost all women were assumed to be housewives.
Accordingly, women and children’s access to market income was organized through marriage, as was their access to social insurance. Male workers could claim social insurance benefits for themselves and their dependents from the state, unions, employers and other institutions, but women seldom had any way to make claims independently. When husbands died, widows with children could draw pensions from the state and/or receive aid from the husband’s union, while women without husbands usually had no legal way to make such claims. At the same time, work was organized on the assumption that all men were married to women who could devote their time and labor to the care of children.Topics of Expertise: Labor & Workforce / Work & Family
In this briefing paper, we question both this explanation of poverty and the policy prescriptions that derive from it.Marriage offers important social and economic benefits. Children who grow up with married parents generally enjoy a higher standard of living than those living in single-parent households. Two parents are usually better than one not only because they can bring home two paychecks, but also because they can share responsibilities for child care. Marriage often leads to higher levels of paternal involvement than divorce, non-marriage, or cohabitation. Long-term commitments to provide love and support to one another are beneficial for adults, as well as children.Topics of Expertise: Economic Inequality / TANF & Public Assistance